Available are three products for laboratory engines and one for in-line engines. Products range from economical data capture only to full hands off automation. Each product is simply upgradable at a later date to the product with higher degree of automation. The software automatically records all data depending on degree of automation from dual cetane meter, hand wheel position, injection timing, and ignition delay. Data management and data treatment including all calculations and data storage are done by the software in strict accordance with ASTM D method. This data capture offers full, simplified ISO traceability with full documentation.
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Standard Test Method for Cetane Number of Diesel Fuel Oil1 This standard is issued under the xed designation D ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. The values given in parentheses are the historical inch-pound units for information only. In addition, the engine measurements continue to be in inch-pound units because of the extensive and expensive tooling that has been created for these units. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
For more specic warning statements, see Annex A1. Referenced Documents 2. Current edition approved May 1, Published May Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D b. Terminology 3. No further reproductions authorized. D 05 3. E 3. It conducts regular monthly exchange sample analyses to generate precision data for this engine test standard and determines the CNARV of reference materials used by all laboratories.
Summary of Test Method 4. This is accomplished using the bracketing handwheel procedure which varies the compression ratio handwheel reading for the sample and each of two bracketing reference fuels to obtain a specic ignition delay permitting interpolation of cetane number in terms of handwheel reading. Signicance and Use 5. The relationship of test engine performance to full scale, variable speed, variable load engines is not completely understood. However, the relationship to the performance of such materials in full scale engines is not completely understood.
Interferences 6. A change from alpha-methylnaphthalene to heptamethylnonane as the low cetane ingredient was made in to utilize a material of better storage stability and availability. Apparatus 7. Paul Avenue, Waukesha, WI Waukesha Engine also has CFR engine authorized sales and service organizations in selected geographical areas. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee 1, which you may attend.
The engine is belt connected to a special electric power-absorption motor which acts as a motor driver to start the engine and as a means to absorb power at constant speed when combustion is occurring engine ring.
See Fig. D 05 7. Measurement shall be performed accurately because rating error is proportional to blending error. For volumetric blending, a set of two burets or accurate volumetric ware shall be used and the desired batch quantity shall be collected in an appropriate container and thoroughly mixed before being introduced to the engine fuel system.
Calibration shall be veried in accordance with Practice E The delivery tip shall be of such size and design that shutoff tip discharge does not exceed 0. It is also important to inspect the type of spray pattern.
Commercial injector nozzle testers which include a lever-operated pressure cylinder, fuel reservoir and pressure gage are available from several sources as common diesel engine maintenance equipment. Lists and descriptions of these tools and instruments are available from the manufacturers of the engine equipment and those organizations offering engineering and service support for this test method.
Reagents and Reference Materials 8. A commercial multifunctional water treatment material should be used in the coolant to minimize corrosion and mineral scale that can alter heat transfer and rating results.
It shall contain a detergent additive and have a kinematic viscosity of 9. Oils containing viscosity index improvers shall not be used. Multigraded oils shall not be used. WarningLubricating oil is combustible, and its vapor is harmful. See Annex A1. Vapor harmful.
Before a container that has been stored at low temperature is placed in service, it should be warmed to a temperature of at least 15C 27F above its Cloud Point. See Test Method D It should be held at this temperature for a period of at least 30 min and then the container should be thoroughly remixed. WarningCheck FuelCombustible. Sampling 9. D 05 9. See Specication E Engineering and technical support for this function is required, and the user shall be responsible to comply with all local and national codes and installation requirements.
Some of these settings are established by component specications, others are established at the time of engine assembly or after overhaul and still others are engine running conditions that must be observed or determined by operator adjustment, or both, during the testing process.
Engine speed when combustion is occurring shall not be more than 3 rpm greater than that for motoring without combustion. The two critical valve events are those that occur near top-dead-center tdc ; intake valve opening and exhaust valve closing.
See Annex A4 for detailed instructions on setting and checking the fuel pump timing. These clearances should ensure that both valves have sufficient clearance to cause valve seating during engine warm-up. The adjustable-length valve push-rods shall be set so that the valve rocker adjusting screws have adequate travel to permit the nal clearance setting.
Vacuum shall not exceed mm 10 in. See Appendix X2 for a suitable procedure to determine if resonance exists. Proper positioning is accomplished through the use of plastic or paper gaskets, available in several thicknesses and selected by trial and error for assembly between the cylinder and crankcase deck.
Spray pattern performance checks shall be made in a hood or where adequate ventilation insures that inhalation of the vapors is avoided. Check this setting using an injector nozzle bench tester, each time the nozzle is reassembled and after cleaning. Use of a commercial injector nozzle bench tester is recommended.
See Annex A4 for procedural detail. A typical spray pattern is illustrated in Fig. The actual compression ratio is not important but an indication of compression ratio which relates to cetane number is a useful guide for selecting reference fuels to bracket the sample of diesel fuel oil. See Appendix X3 for handwheel assembly reworking instructions. Loosen the lock nut of the large handwheel and remove the locking L-shaped key. Turn the large handwheel so that the edge of the drum is in alignment with the 1.
Reinstall the L-shaped key in the nearest keyway slot of the large handwheel with the shorter leg in the handwheel. A slight shifting of the handwheel to achieve slot lineup will not affect the indexing. Tighten the lock nut hand-tight to hold the key in place. Remove the locating screw from the drum and rotate the drum so that the zero graduation mark is in line with the selected reading from Table 1. Locate the screw hole in the drum which lines up with the handwheel hub hole and reinstall the locating screw.
Wrench tighten the large handwheel lock nut and recheck that the variable compression plug is properly positioned and the handwheel reading is in accordance with the value in Table 1. Hg shall be 6 kPa 6 20 psi when read as quickly as possible after shutdown of the engine which had been at standard operating conditions. Oversize Rebored 0. Oversize Handwheel Reading 1. As an example, an engine located where the barometric pressure is mm Hg would be expected to have a compression pressure of approximately kPa 6 20 psi.
WarningIn addition to other precautions, compression pressure testing using a compression pressure gage should be completed in as short a period of time as possible to avoid the possibility of combustion occurrence due to the presence of any small amount of oil in the gage or combustion chamber.
The Check Fuels are the most helpful means available to permit judgement of good performance. When the level rises appreciably, the sump should be drained and a fresh charge of oil added. Add sufficient engine crankcase lubricating oil through the top hole to cause the level to rise to the height of the side opening.
Replug both openings. WarningThe pump and timing gear box oil sumps are not connected to each other and the lubrication for the two is independent. They are installed in a bracket positioned over the ywheel so that they clear the ywheel indicator which triggers them. Calibration and Engine Qualication The injector nozzle can be a very critical factor and this should be the rst item checked or replaced to achieve rating compliance.
Procedure Calibration adjustment should be checked before each rating but never changed during a rating. WarningSample and FuelCombustible. Note the ow-ratemicrometer reading for reference. Note the injection-timing-micrometer reading for reference. Make the nal handwheel adjustment in the clockwise direction viewed from front of engine to eliminate backlash in the handwheel mechanism and a potential error. NOTE 1Experience has shown that if handwheel readings are taken when the fuel tank levels of samples and reference fuels are similar, more consistent results are obtained.
ASTM D613 - Cetane Number