Aphelenchoidinae Aphelenchoides Fischer, As of there were more than nominal species assigned to the genus Esmaeli et al. Many are poorly described based on morphological and anatomical characters alone and are difficult to identify de Jesus et al. The genus Aphelenchoides has as type species A. Species of the genus occur in soil, decaying plant residues, moss, and on the surfaces of rocks and trees. Many of the species are mycophagous but a few have importance importance as ecto- and endoparasites of plants. The major plant-parasitic species include A.
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Wood Impact Top of page A. The weight of the crown of strawberry, cv. Damage to the plant crowns and reduced yield were related to population density in winter and spring but reduced runner production was due to the summer population density Bohmer, A foliar blight of anthurium Anthurium andraeanum in Hawaii which is often lethal in young plants was found to be caused by Aphelenchoides fragariae. The nematode also invades and destroys anthurium seeds Hunter et al.
Detection and Inspection Top of page Leaf and bud symptoms should be examined. Look for malformations of shoots such as twisting and puckering of leaves, discoloured areas with hard and rough surfaces, undersized leaves with crinkled edges, reddening of petioles, and for strawberries, short internodes of runners, reduced flower trusses with only one or two flowers and dying crown bud.
Leaf symptoms on Philippine violet Barleria cristata begin as chlorotic vein delineated areas which later change to light brown, then dark brown, and finally black Lehman and Miller, ; dieback disease symptoms with pronounced discolouration of leaves are seen on lilies in Japan Yamada and Takakura, The nematode is detected by removing diseased tissues and submerging them in water for about 24 hours.
The nematodes come out of the tissue into the water. Increased numbers of A. Leaf-blotch symptoms and the strawberry disease Spring dwarf, Spring crimp or Red plant symptoms may be caused wholly or partly by A.
The 2 species can be differentiated on morphological characters. Most A. Prevention and Control Top of page Due to the variable regulations around de registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control.
Chemical control Strawberries Symptoms and control of diseases in strawberry due to infestation by A. Immersion of fresh strawberry plants in thionazin before freeze preservation virtually eliminated A.
Washing the plants after treatment reduced the nematicidal effect at lower concentrations Tacconi et al. Begonias Thionazin and a carbamoyl compound were effective in controlling A. Ferns Ferns have been successfully treated with demeton Hirschmann, The Hawaiian tree fern, Cobotium chamissoi, which is used as a planting medium, is the source of infection to other plants Hunter et al.
Other hosts Foliar sprays of lilies with demeton were effective Jensen and Caveness, Abamectin applied to Lamium maculatum foliage infested with A. Among several introduced and new Soviet strawberry varieties, 11 varieties were found to be relatively resistant to A. In Poland, strawberry varieties George Soltwedel, Regina and Talizman are comparatively resistant Szczygiel, , None of the 33 strawberry cultivars was entirely resistant to A.
Very low susceptibility to A. Biological Control Thirteen nematophagous fungi attract and feed on Ditylenchus destructor and A. Physical Control Exposing A. Hot water treatment HWT of infested aerial plant parts has long been in use. Hot water treatments on a Californian population of A. The minimum-maximum exposure periods that killed A. Best results should be obtained if runners are taken before September MacLachlan and Duggan, Cultural Control Cultural methods of control include thorough and constant rogueing of plants showing signs of infestation, burning all infected material, propagating only from healthy stocks and in clean soil and containers, and avoiding contacts between plants and undue surface moisture of the leaves Siddiqi, In France, cultural methods to control A.
Wood Impact Top of page A. The crown weight of strawberry cv. Damage to the plant crowns and reduced yield were related to population density in winter and spring, but reduced runner production was due to the summer population density Bohmer, Due to infection by A. The variety Yasna seems to be somewhat less susceptible to A. In Poland, A. Diagnosis Top of page Increased numbers of A.
EPPO Global Database
In , Markinowski grouped A. Male A. The head is sharply differentiated from the body in that it is noticeably wider than the neck. This nematode has four lateral incisures. Females have at least two rows of oocytes and the spicule on the male nematodes is a short ventral process without outgrowths.