Trees 0 General Info This small Tree is up to 15m high in forests. Bark becomes dark and rough. Fruit an indehiscent pod with up to 8 dark oval Seeds. Description Calpurnia aurea subsp.
|Published (Last):||9 December 2017|
|PDF File Size:||17.39 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||2.26 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Shemsu Umer: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background In Ethiopia, Calpurnia aurea is used for the treatment of syphilis, malaria, rabies, diabetes, hypertension, diarrhoea, leishmaniasis, trachoma, elephantiasis, fungal diseases and different swellings. However, despite its traditional usage as an antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial agent, there is limited or no information regarding its effectiveness and mode of action in diarrhoea which may be caused by Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi.
Diarrhoea was induced by oral administration of 0. During an observation period of 4 h, time of onset of diarrhea, total number of faecal output frequency of defecation and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post test. Antimicrobial activity test was conducted using agar well diffusion assay. Clinical isolates tested were Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Conclusions C. Keywords: Calpurnia aurea leaf extract, Antidiarrhoeal, Antimicrobial, Ethiopia Background Diarrhoeal disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, especially among children in developing countries resulting in a major health care problem [ 1 ]. The major causative agents of diarrhoea in humans include: Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi[ 2 ]. Candida albicans has also been known to cause diarrhoea in humans [ 3 ].
Despite the availability of vast spectrum of approaches for diarrhoeal management, vast majority of people in developing countries rely on herbal drugs for the management of diarrhoea.
WHO has encouraged studies for treatment and prevention of diarrhoeal diseases depending on traditional medical practices [ 4 ].
Consumption of medicinal herbs is tremendously increasing over the past decade as alternative approach to improve the quality of life and maintain good health. Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human diseases.
Extensive studies of the adverse effects of these herbal medicines and establishment of a good correlation between biomarkers and plants are essential for ensuring the efficiency and quality of herbal medicines.
Recently, there has been growing interest in exploiting biological activities of flora and fauna owing to their natural origin, cost effectiveness and lesser side effects. Plant-based natural constituents can be derived from any part of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, seeds, etc. Medicinal properties of plants unique to particular plant species or groups are consistent with the concept that combination of secondary products in a particular plant is taxonomically distinct [ 5 ].
The acceptance of traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care and the development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics have led researchers to investigate the antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts. Plants containing flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, phenolic compounds and alkaloids have been reported to have antimicrobial activity. WHO has continued a diarrhoeal disease control programme which includes studies of traditional medicinal practices together with the evaluation of health education and preventive approaches.
This may reduce mortality rate in developing countries due to diarrhea [ 5 ]. In developing countries, majority of people almost exclusively use traditional medicines in treating all sorts of diseases, including diarrhoea.
It would be interesting to search for plants with antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities that could be used against any type of diarrhoeal disease. A range of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial properties have been widely used by traditional healers. However, therapeutic potentials of some of these medicines have not been scientifically evaluated [ 1 ].
Among these plants, Calpurnea aurea which is widely distributed throughout tropical Africa enjoys a number of ethnomedical uses in Ethiopia. Traditionally, the leaves are used to cure diarrhoea, stomach-ache, bowel, and bladder disorders [ 6 ].
Therefore, it is necessary to establish the scientific basis for the therapeutic actions of traditional plant medicines as these may serve as the source for the development of more effective drugs.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antidiarrhoeal in vivo and antimicrobial in vitro properties of the leaf extract of C. Identity of the plant was confirmed by a taxonomist at the National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. The leaves were then dried at room temperature under shade and then ground to fine powder using sterile porcelain mortar and pistil.
Preliminary phytochemical analysis The methanol extract was tested for the presence or absence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins using the procedure described by Sofowara [ 7 ]. Animals Twenty five Swiss albino mice of either sex, weighing 20—30 g and aged 6—8 weeks were used for the experiment. The animals were acclimatized to laboratory condition for one week prior to the experiments.
All procedures performed were reviewed and approved by the Addis Ababa University, College of Health Sciences Review Board and conform to internationally accepted principles.
Acute oral toxicity test In the acute oral toxicity study of methanol extract of C. The limit test was repeated three times on a single test animal as a part of an oral acute toxicity assay. As no mortality of experimental animals was observed at the limit dose for the LD50 study, a dose regime of more than the limit dose, i. Castor oil induced diarrhea The method described by Shoba and Thomas [ 9 ], was followed for this study with slight modification. The animals were all screened initially by giving 0.
Only those showing diarrhoea were selected for the final experiment. Twenty five mice fasted for 24 h were randomly allocated to five groups of five animals each.
One hour after administration, all animals received 0. During an observation period of 4 h, the time of onset of diarrhoea, the total number of faecal output frequency of defecation and weight of faeces excreted by the animals were recorded. Antimicrobial activity Antimicrobial activity was evaluated on the following intestinal pathogens: Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, all are clinical isolates.
Agar well diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial activity. Diluted inoculums 0. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition against the test organisms [ 10 ]. Gentamycin 1 mg disc was used as a reference standard and dimethylsulphoxide DMSO was used as a control.
The growth was compared with the reference as well as the control. Each experiment was repeated three times. Micro dilution broth method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration MIC. The wells were inoculated with 0. Dilution of the extract corresponding to respective test organism showing no visible growth was considered as MIC. Acute toxicity The various observations showed normal behavior of the treated mice.
Hence, there were no lethal effects in any of the groups. Table 1 Effect of Calpurnia aurea extract on castor oil induced diarrhea in mice Treatment Time of onset of diarrhea min.
Description Description A multi-stemmed shrub or a small graceful slender evergreen tree 2 - 4 m tall with a light, open crown. The leaves are compound, up to 20cm long, each having pairs of leaflets and a terminal one. The leaflets are oblong 2. They are a fresh light green, graceful and drooping. The flowers are bright yellow, each about 2. They appear irregularly throughout the year.