However, it took 30 years before this idea was applied to functioning devices to be used in practical applications [3] , and, up to the late s, bipolar devices were the mainstream digital technology. Around , this trend took a turn when MOS technology caught up and there was a crossover between bipolar and MOS shares. In digital circuit applications, there was a performance gap between CMOS and bipolar logic. The existence of this gap, as shown in Figure 1.

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Low-Power Design: An Overview. From Devices to Circuits. Deep Submicron Processes. Device Behavior and Modeling. The Bipolar Junction Transistor. Low-Power Latches and Flip-Flops. Evolution of Latches and Flip-Flops. Quality Measures for Latches and Flip-Flops.

Basic Equations. Current Equations. Charge Equations. Noise Equations. Parameter Scaling Geometrical scaling and temperature scaling. Model Equations. DC Current Model. Charge Model. Noise Model. Hyperbolic HYP Functions. Temperature, Geometry, and Voltage Dependence. Preface Preface With advances in ultra-large-scale-integration ULSI technology, the industry is now on the brink of logic integrated circuits ICs packed with over million transistors, whose device feature dimensions are far smaller than the wavelength of visible light.

This trend, together with the never-ending demand for maximum speed and minimum power, has shaped a new arena in which the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor CMOS and Bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor BiCMOS technologies have found themselves gaining importance and attracting keen interest in digital, analog, and even radio-frequency IC design.

This development has led many business leaders and market visionaries to predict that the best is yet to come, and the established trend will stay with us for a long time.

This book begins with an introductory chapter on the history of semiconductor devices and its evolution throughout the years. It also addresses the importance of low power design and how it affects the portability, reliability, cost, and even environment in very-large-scale-integration VLSI and giga-scale-integration GSI engineering.

A thorough review of low-voltage, low-power design limitations in relation to the power supply voltage, threshold voltage, scaling, and interconnect wires is detailed. Chapter 1 concludes with the challenges facing future device and circuit designers, caused by the ongoing shrinking of device dimensions and the never-ending growing complexities of integrated circuits. A review of various isolation technologies, new planarization methods for shallow trench isolation STI structures, and the latchup phenomenon are detailed in this chapter.

A new characterization method for the 0. A methodology to construct a device model for a given wafer, using device characterization tools based on the successful retrieval of experimental data, is presented toward the last part of this chapter. In ultra-low-voltage design, the output voltage swing of a logic gate cannot be compromised.

Even though chapter 4 covers a wide range of logic gates pertaining to low-voltage, low-power IC design, it is important to step up from the basic cell design to the circuit design. In that respect, latches and flop-flops, which are commonly found in synchronous and asynchronous systems, are described in chapter 5.

This chapter starts with an introductory section to explain the need for low-power latches and flip-flops. It also profiles the basics of latches and flip-flops-their functionality, types, applications, design styles, and development through the years.

Because latches and flip-flops are used to store logic values, the traditional measures of area, speed, and power dissipation are not exhaustive and are insufficient to access their quality. Hence, it becomes imperative to have a comprehensive set of quality measures to evaluate all aspects of a design decision.

Finally, the chapter concludes with the various design styles such as dynamic, static, and semistatic used in single edge-triggered flip-flops, and double edge-triggered flip-flops.

The information presented shall be extremely beneficial and valuable to students, instructors, circuit designers, engineers, scientists, and professors who are already working or about to embark in this very important field of portable integrated electronics.


Low-Power Design: An Overview



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