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Zushicage Compared to more commonly encountered states of matter, Bose—Einstein condensates are extremely fragile. The validity of this approach is actually limited to the case of ultracold temperatures, which fits well for the most alkali atoms experiments. Superfluid helium has many unusual properties, including zero viscosity the ability to flow without dissipating energy and the existence of quantized vortices. From this point on, any extra particle added will go into the ground state.

The key feature of the Bose—Einstein condensates is that they magnify quantum mechanical phenomena, which govern the nanoscale up to macroscopic consensacion.

Research has, however, indicated they are metastable states, so may have relatively long lifetimes. Retrieved 26 January Years after, inKirkpatrick and Dorfman obtained similar equations using another microscopical approach.

If one relaxes any of these assumptions, the equation for the condensate wavefunction acquires the terms containing higher-order powers of the wavefunction. So the probability distribution is exponential:.

Cornell and Carl E. This will be a negligible fraction condensaciob the total number of particles. The high transition temperature relative to atomic gases is due to the magnons small mass near an electron and greater achievable density.

Yang showed that cold dark matter axions form a Bose-Einstein condensate by thermalisation because of gravitational self-interactions. Archived from the original on 4 March In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

Bosons, which include the photon as well as atoms such as helium-4 4 Heare allowed to share a quantum state. How do we rigorously prove the existence of Bose—Einstein condensates for general interacting systems? Kishor Kumar; et al. Quench cooling the gas, they observed the condensate to grow, then subsequently collapse as the attraction overwhelmed the zero-point energy of the confining potential, in a burst reminiscent of a supernova, with an explosion preceded by an implosion.

Retrieved 25 June There are different Fortran and C programs for its solution for contact interaction [14] [15] and long-range dipolar interaction [16] which can be freely used.

Magnons, electron spin waves, can be controlled by a magnetic field. Rasel from Leibniz University of Hanover. Note that helium-3a fermionalso enters a superfluid phase at a much lower temperature which can be explained by the formation of bosonic Cooper pairs of two atoms see also fermionic condensate. Archived from the original on 24 October Bose—Einstein condensation remains, however, fundamental to the superfluid properties of helium The Life and Times.

Under corresponding conditions, below the temperature of phase transition, these phenomena were observed in helium-4 and different classes of superconductors. Although solitons boss-einstein no charge and are thus prone to decay, relatively long-lived dark solitons have been produced and studied extensively.

Steven Chu was a co-inventor. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. TOP Related Posts.


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