DENIS MCQUAIL USES AND GRATIFICATIONS PDF

What is Uses and Gratifications Theory? The Uses and Gratifications Theory is a theory of Mass Communication that places the needs, motives and gratifications of media users in the center of interest and sees media users playing an active role in the media consumption process. Lasswell was the first to counter traditional mass communication theories based on a passive role of audience, such as the Hypodermic Needle Theory and the Persuasion Theory. They shifted the focus from media effects to media functions. In their view, society was like a living organism composed by small parts having each a specific function.

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UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. An interest in more psychological interpretations emerged during this time period.

In , Lasswell introduced a four-functional interpretation of the media on a macro-sociological level. Media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals [14] Stages of the theory Uses and gratifications theory was developed from a number of prior communication theories and research conducted by fellow theorists.

For her study, Herzog interviewed soap opera fans and was able to identify three types of gratifications. The three gratifications categories, based on why people listened to soap operas, were emotional, wishful thinking, and learning. The basis for his argument was that people actively looked to satisfy their needs based on a hierarchy. The formula helped to decide the amount of gratification an individual would expect to gain from the medium over how much effort they had to make to achieve gratification.

The four categories were: diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance. The collaborative research began to indicate how people saw the mass media. Blumler then offered suggestions about the kinds of activity the audiences were engaging with in the different types of media. These included four primary factors for which one may use the media: [73] Diversion: Escape from routine and problems; an emotional release [74] Personal Relationships: Social utility of information in conversation; substitution of media for companionship [75] Personal Identity or Individual Psychology: Value reinforcement or reassurance; self-understanding, reality exploration [76] Surveillance: Information about factors which might affect one or will help one do or accomplish something [77] Katz, Gurevitch and Haas saw mass media as a means by which individuals connect or disconnect themselves with others.

They developed 35 needs taken from the largely speculative literature on the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories: Cognitive Needs: Acquiring information, knowledge and understanding [72] Media Examples: Television news , video how-to , movies documentaries or based on history Affective Needs: Emotion, pleasure, feelings [72] Media Examples: Movies, television soap operas, sitcoms Personal Integrative Needs: Credibility, stability, status [72] Media Examples: Video Social Integrative Needs: Family and friends [72] Media Examples: Internet e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, social media Tension Release Needs: Escape and diversion [72] Media Examples: Television, movies, video, radio, internet References.

Severin and Tankard, Katz, Elihu Departmental Papers ASC : 1—6. Introducing Communication Theory. McGraw Hill. Addison Wesley Longman. Mass communication theory: an introduction. London: Sage Publications. Katz, Elihu, Jay G. Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch. Baran, Dennis K. Boston, MA: Wadsworth. Levy, Mark; Sven Windahl Media gratifications research: Current perspectives: — Wenner; K.

Rosengren Media gratifications research: 1— Lazarsfeld, Boston: McGraw-Hill, Leung, L. Punyanunt-Carter Chua, Alton Y. Stafford, Thomas F. Schkade Spring Eastin Leung, Louis Raacke, John; Jennifer Bonds-Raacke Wang, Zheng; John M. Tchernev; Tyler Solloway Park, Namsu, Kerk F. Kee, and Sebastian Valenzuela. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Chen, Gina Masullo March Bevan Lee, Chei Sian; Long Ma New York Times. December 5, Bartsch, Anne; Reinhold Viehoff March 29, Zillman, D Roloff, M.

Raney, A. Bryant, D. Cantor, ed. Communication and emotion: Essays in honor of Dolf Zillmann. Zillman, D. Vorderer, P.

Friedrichsen, ed. Suspense: Conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations. Zuckerman, M. Sensation Seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. New York: Wiley. Bartsch, Anne; Reinhold Viehoff Vorderer, P; Steen, F. Bryant, J. Psychology of Entertainment. Knobloch, S. Knobloch-Westerwick, S. Oliver, M. Exploring the paradox of the enjoyment of sad films. Mundorf, N. Communication and Emotion. Essays in honor of Dolf Zillmann. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Horton, D. Kilmmt, C. May Rubin, A. Busselle, R. Green, M. Mares, M. Knobloch, S; Zillmann, D Tesser, A. Waterman, A. Katz, E; Gurevitch, M. Cathart, eds. Littlejohn, ; Severin and Tankard, ; McQuail Lometti, G. Investigating the assumptions of uses and gratifications research. Communication Research, 4 3 , Greenberg, B.

Gratifications of television viewing and their correlates for British children. The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research, 3, Severin, W. Uses of mass media. Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. Ruggiero, T.

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Uses and Gratification Theory

UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. An interest in more psychological interpretations emerged during this time period. In , Lasswell introduced a four-functional interpretation of the media on a macro-sociological level. Media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals [14] Stages of the theory Uses and gratifications theory was developed from a number of prior communication theories and research conducted by fellow theorists. For her study, Herzog interviewed soap opera fans and was able to identify three types of gratifications. The three gratifications categories, based on why people listened to soap operas, were emotional, wishful thinking, and learning. The basis for his argument was that people actively looked to satisfy their needs based on a hierarchy.

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Uses and gratifications theory

Furthermore, the frequency of tweets and number of replies and public messages mediated annd relationship between Twitter users. Particulars under socialization might be finding old friends, making new friends, learning about events, creating social functions, and feeling connected. Beyond the optimal level of arousal. An interest in more psychological interpretations emerged during this time period.

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Uses and Gratifications Theory

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