GENERAL The conceptual framework we seek must orient us toward the real possibilities and problems associated with using modern technology to give direct aid to an individual in comprehending complex situations, isolating the significant factors, and solving problems. To gain this orientation, we examine how individuals achieve their present level of effectiveness, and expect that this examination will reveal possibilities for improvement. The entire effect of an individual on the world stems essentially from what he can transmit to the world through his limited motor channels. This in turn is based on information received from the outside world through limited sensory channels; on information, drives, and needs generated within him; and on his processing of that information. His processing is of two kinds: that which he is generally conscious of recognizing patterns, remembering, visualizing, abstracting, deducing, inducing, etc. The ways in which human capabilities are thus extended are here called augmentation means, and we define four basic classes of them: 1 Artifacts--physical objects designed to provide for human comfort, for the manipulation of things or materials, and for the manipulation of symbols.
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His ancestors were of German , Swedish and Norwegian descent. The family lived in Portland, Oregon, in his early years, and moved to the surrounding countryside along Johnson Creek when he was 8. His father died one year later. In his off hours he enjoyed hiking, camping, and folk dancing.
It was there he met Ballard Fish August 18, — June 18, ,  who was just completing her training to become an occupational therapist. They were married in Portola State Park on May 5, Soon after, Engelbart left Ames to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley. There, he received an M. He had also read something about the recent phenomenon of computers, and from his experience as a radar technician, he knew that information could be analyzed and displayed on a screen.
He envisioned intellectual workers sitting at display "working stations", flying through information space, harnessing their collective intellectual capacity to solve important problems together in much more powerful ways.
His graduate work led to eight patents. Engelbart then formed a startup company, Digital Techniques, to commercialize some of his doctoral research on storage devices, but after a year decided instead to pursue the research he had been dreaming of since He worked for Hewitt Crane on magnetic devices and miniaturization of electronics; Engelbart and Crane became close friends.
Engelbart embedded a set of organizing principles in his lab, which he termed " bootstrapping strategy". He designed the strategy to accelerate the rate of innovation of his lab. He and his team developed computer interface elements such as bitmapped screens, the mouse, hypertext , collaborative tools, and precursors to the graphical user interface. Two Apple Macintosh Plus mice, Engelbart applied for a patent in and received it in , for the wooden shell with two metal wheels computer mouse — U.
Patent 3,, , which he had developed with Bill English , his lead engineer, sometime before Engelbart later revealed that it was nicknamed the "mouse" because the tail came out the end. His group also called the on-screen cursor a "bug", but this term was not widely adopted. During an interview, he said " SRI patented the mouse, but they really had no idea of its value.
As early as , several of his researchers became alienated from him and left his organization for Xerox PARC , in part due to frustration, and in part due to differing views of the future of computing. The conflict was both technical and ideological: the younger programmers came from an era where centralized power was highly suspect, and personal computing was just barely on the horizon.
Although EST had been recommended by other researchers, the controversial nature of EST and other social experiments reduced the morale and social cohesion of the ARC community. Various executives, first at Tymshare and later at McDonnell Douglas , which acquired Tymshare in , expressed interest in his ideas, but never committed the funds or the people to further develop them.
Although the invasion of Iraq and subsequent recession spawned a rash of belt-tightening reorganizations which drastically redirected the efforts of their alliance partners, they continued with the management seminars, consulting, and small-scale collaborations. Engelbart, Only 2, softcover copies were printed, and hardcover, numbered and signed by Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
Where Whorf reasoned that the sophistication of a language controls the sophistication of the thoughts that can be expressed by a speaker of that language, Engelbart reasoned that the state of our current technology controls our ability to manipulate information, and that fact in turn will control our ability to develop new, improved technologies.
He thus set himself to the revolutionary task of developing computer-based technologies for manipulating information directly, and also to improve individual and group processes for knowledge-work. Cringely did an hour-long interview with Engelbart on December 9, in his NerdTV video podcast series.
His ancestors were of German , Swedish and Norwegian descent. The family lived in Portland, Oregon, in his early years, and moved to the surrounding countryside along Johnson Creek when he was 8. His father died one year later. In his off hours he enjoyed hiking, camping, and folk dancing. It was there he met Ballard Fish August 18, — June 18, ,  who was just completing her training to become an occupational therapist.
When Engelbart state a framework that is not only a simply research report but a wrote this paper he felt the urgency to find a way to help people to vision of the future. The american engeneer thought in a very global way and inside the relationship between human and computer machines. But we have to which is headed by knowledge, but that the increase of them rember that for Engelbart the power of the machine is not located needs to be solved on a global scale and with the help of a tool in a single human — computer relation but in a series of networked that can afford to analyze, understand and share them to deal with computer. For this, Engelbart underline the importance of start augment the human collective capability to solve complex tasks to developing new means for approach this purpose.
Augmenting Human Intellect
Still this work is very insightful for Some quotes below: -- You can integrate your new ideas more easily, and thus harness your creativity more continuously, if you can quickly and flexibly change your working record. If it is easier to update any part of your working record to accommodate new developments in thought or circumstance, you will find it easier to incorporate Language is complicated. If it is easier to update any part of your working record to accommodate new developments in thought or circumstance, you will find it easier to incorporate more complex procedures in your way of doing things. It is rather like having to project three-dimensional images onto two-dimensional frames and to work with them there instead of in their natural form.