Flight control surfaces include Leading-edge flapsflaperonsaileronsrudders on the canted vertical stabilizersand all-moving horizontal tails; these surfaces also serve as speed brakes. Jumper exceeded Mach 1. However, such radars are also conspicuous, susceptible to clutterand have low precision. Archived from the original on 19 July Slate, 24 February The cause of the crash was found to be a flight control software error that failed to prevent a pilot-induced oscillation.

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Code named "Senior Sky", this air-superiority fighter program was influenced by emerging worldwide threats, including new developments in Soviet air defense systems and the proliferation of the Su "Flanker" - and MiG "Fulcrum" -class of fighter aircraft. Of the seven bidding companies, Lockheed and Northrop were selected on 31 October Contractors made extensive use of analytical and empirical methods, including computational fluid dynamics , wind-tunnel testing, and radar cross-section calculations and pole testing; the Lockheed team would conduct nearly 18, hours of wind-tunnel testing.

Avionics development was marked by extensive testing and prototyping and supported by ground and flying laboratories. The short takeoff and landing STOL requirement was relaxed in order to delete thrust-reversers , saving substantial weight.

As avionics was a major cost driver, side-looking radars were deleted, and the dedicated infra-red search and track IRST system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and then deleted as well.

However, space and cooling provisions were retained to allow for future addition of these components. The YF had its maiden flight on 29 September and in flight tests achieved up to Mach 1.

The shapes of the wing and stabilator trailing edges were refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics. By , funding instability had further cut the total to , which was again reduced to by Six more EMD aircraft were built in the Block 10 configuration for development and upgrade testing, with the last two considered essentially production quality jets.

England , and Chairman of U. Michael Moseley. Since the production halt directed in by then Defense Secretary Gates, lawmakers and the Pentagon noted that air warfare systems of Russia and China were catching up to those of the U.

The F fleet began receiving Increment 3. Subsequent upgrades are also focusing on having an open architecture and agile software development to enable faster future enhancements. Flight control surfaces include leading-edge flaps , flaperons , ailerons , rudders on the canted vertical stabilizers , and all-moving horizontal tails stabilators ; for speed brake function, the ailerons deflect up, flaperons down, and rudders outwards to increase drag.

Maximum speed without external stores is approximately Mach 1. The MLD uses six sensors to provide full spherical infrared coverage. Depending on the detected threat, the defensive systems can prompt the pilot to release countermeasures such as flares or chaff. The ALR can be used as a passive detection system capable of searching targets and providing enough information for a radar lock on.

Radar emissions can also be focused to overload enemy sensors as an electronic-attack capability. Fs from Lot 5 and on are equipped with the APG V 1, which provides air-to-ground functionality through synthetic aperture radar mapping and various strike modes. This allows the F to rapidly designate targets for allies and coordinate friendly aircraft.

The integrated nature of the avionics have also made upgrades challenging; consequently, open-system architecture for the aircraft is currently planned in order to facilitate future upgrades. The monochrome head-up display offers a wide field of view and serves as a primary flight instrument ; information is also displayed upon six color liquid-crystal display LCD panels. The USAF initially wanted to implement direct voice input DVI controls, but this was judged to be too technically risky and was abandoned.

Three 6. Missile launches require the bay doors to be open for less than a second, during which pneumatic or hydraulic arms push missiles clear of the aircraft; this is to reduce vulnerability to detection and to deploy missiles during high speed flight. Each hardpoint can accommodate a pylon that can carry a detachable gallon 2, L external fuel tank or a launcher holding two air-to-air missiles; the two inboard hardpoints are "plumbed" for external fuel tanks. The F was designed to be highly difficult to detect and track by radar.

Measures to reduce radar cross-section RCS include airframe shaping such as alignment of edges, fixed-geometry serpentine inlets and curved vanes that prevent line-of-sight of the engine faces and turbines from any exterior view, use of radar-absorbent material RAM , and attention to detail such as hinges and pilot helmets that could provide a radar return.

The F was also designed to have decreased radio emissions, infrared signature and acoustic signature as well as reduced visibility to the naked eye. Unlike the B-2 , which requires climate-controlled hangars, the F can undergo repairs on the flight line or in a normal hangar. The F has a Signature Assessment System which delivers warnings when the radar signature is degraded and necessitates repair. When an aircraft maneuvers it exposes a completely different set of angles and surface area, potentially increasing radar observability.

The effects of Rayleigh scattering and resonance mean that low-frequency radars such as weather radars and early-warning radars are more likely to detect the F due to its physical size.

However, such radars are also conspicuous, susceptible to clutter , and have low precision. The aircraft was also briefly dubbed "SuperStar" and "Rapier". The F designation was reinstated in December , when the aircraft entered service. The first two aircraft tested flying qualities, air vehicle performance, propulsion, and stores separation.

The third aircraft, the first to have production-level internal structure, tested flight loads, flutter, and JDAM separation, while two non-flying Fs were built for static loads testing and fatigue testing.

Modifications and inspections were implemented to the booms to restore life expectancy. Against superior numbers of Red Force Aggressor Fs and Fs, 6—8 Fs maintained air dominance throughout and provided airborne electronic surveillance. No sorties were missed because of maintenance or other failures; a single F was judged "lost" against the defeated opposing force. Maintenance hours per flight hour was also improved from 30 early on to Attrition reserve aircraft numbers are limited due to the small fleet size.


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