The Bauhaus centenary raises the question: What remains? Are there principles, methods and ideals that are still relevant years after the founding of the school in Weimar? Where are the junctures between our current understanding of architecture and design and that of the Bauhaus? When should we focus more on the ideals of the Bauhaus and when should we distance ourselves from it? How do references to the Bauhaus manifest in the contemporary discourse and what attitudes do they reveal? Those who look to the impact of the Bauhaus on our understanding of architecture today will inevitably consider specific approaches of the avant-garde school and the different opinions held by its masters and students, in order to reveal the diverse strands of its reception.
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The movement of modernism and the following reaction of postmodernism are defined by a set of perspectives. It is used in critical theory to refer to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, cinema and design, as well as in marketing and business and the interpretation of history, law and culture in the late 20th century.
Postmodernism is an aesthetic, literary, political or social philosophy, which was the basis of the attempt to describe a condition, or a state of being, or something concerned with changes to institutions and conditions. The major influence in this architectural theory was the difference between the degree of the construction: its theory in relation to its practice — it is easy to agree with the theory of postmodernism its idea , but when its actual building is built, some people critize it for being un-human, with no charcter…techno-cratic.
Postmodernism in Architecture is any of various movements in reaction to modernism that are typically characterized by a return to traditional materials and forms, which is marked by the re-emergence of surface ornament, reference to surrounding buildings in urban architecture, historical reference in decorative forms, and non-orthogonal angles.
It may be a response to the modernist architectural movement known as the International Style Modernism Modernism, in its broadest definition, is modern thought, character, or practice.
More specifically, the term describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. However, the break from the past was not a clean break. The critezen was strong. Some parts of this idea are very important, like the significance of the international architect, but in general this idea was very distant to the people, this is globalization too: one international architecture.
By the s the most important figures in modernist architecture had established their reputations. Finally, the machine aesthetic, and logical design decisions leading to support building function were used by the International architect to create buildings reaching beyond historicism.
This thought was applied to architecture, and in MoMA the Museum of Modern Art in New York held the Deconstructivist Architecture exhibition, organized by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley promoting this new movement as very important and significant, which propelled this school of architecture into the mainstream contemporary design circuit. Deconstructivism in architecture, also called deconstruction, is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late s.
Supermodernism Today globalization plays an important role in public opinion. It is precisely because so many phenomena are associated with globalization that its capacity to explain specific conditions is so limited and tricky to English. After postmodernism and its deconstructivist off-shoot , a new architecture now seems to be emerging, an architecture for which such postmodernist notions as place, context, and identity have largely lost their meaning.
A new trend towards abstract, neutral architecture, which in various respects can be seen as the last word of modern architecture of the postwar International Style. My personal opinion is that when philosophical movements and schools of thought are applied to architectural design it is fundamentally absurd and ridiculous.
Architecture should be architecture: no explanations about poetry and philosophy needed — architecture is architecture. Its relationship with the people, the environment and the economy are the practical issues which are important, and should take precedence.
Globalization Today we lived fascinated by the image of the great city; its technological glorification. Fascination of architecture, is a modern passion. Globalization is taking place in virtually every field — exerting all kinds of direct and indirect influences on contemporary thinking.
The cosmopolitan, with an enthusiasm for urban expansion, seeks spectacles of experience that lure an on the move elite and the labour to serve them from one world-city to the next. Globalization in its literal sense is the process of making, transformation of some things or phenomena into global ones. As a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces.
Globalization is often used to refer to economic globalization, that is, integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology. Thomas L. He also argues that the pace of globalization is quickening and will continue to have a growing impact on business organization and practice.
Herman E. Daly argues that sometimes the terms internationalization and globalization are used interchangeably but there is a slight formal difference. International means between or among nations. These include spaces of transit and temporal occupation as well as the informational spaces of telepresence; increased mobility and telecommunications and the rise of new media being ascribed to globalisation, are altering our experience of time and space.
International interrelatedness and the emergence of cyberspace have changed our perception of cities. With increasing mobility space is being reduced to a transit zone, in-between spaces. The experience of the meaningless of the built environment is mainly related to the difference between place and space While such sites and their placeless experiences proliferate, they surely cannot be defined as outside social relations, history or identity.
Contemporary life, however, is a relentless procession through spaces of transit. Airport lounges and freeways, high speed trains are non-places, but so are less obvious spaces: street corner ATMs, the tube, computer workstations, and supermarkets in these spaces the global meets the local in travel and transit.
In these spaces shared experiences between humans rarely develop. Airports, themed amusement parks, planned communities and shopping centres are utterly cut off from their surroundings.
Hans Ibelings accepts the spatial foreclosure of these new developments. He simply wishes they were better, and by better, he means less preoccupied with representation and symbolism.
The non-attachment phenomenon is regarded as one of three forms of abundance characterising the supermodern condition; abundance of space, of signs, and of individualisation. The latter affects the use of public and semi-public space. Therefore non places are those places to which nobody feels any special attachment, and which are particularly common in the sphere of mobility and consumption.
Public spaces have changed from a meeting place into a highly regulated domain with surveillance, rather than social control mechanisms, but by a third party. For Ibelings, this is simply a fact of globalization.
Buildings are no longer mass and weight, stone and iron, but an array of sentences spelling out the consciousness of a city, what a city means when we enter it and use its services, consume its goods. Structures appear portable and therefore disconnected from their surroundings. As with computers, all the detail is on the inside, while exteriors are neutral and unassuming.
As cities, more than nations, now compete to attract global investment and global tourism, they seek brand differentiation and symbolic modernity. The commissioning of public buildings by star architects is now an established marketing technique. The buildings must be extra-ordinary and designed by one of a small band of international global architects. A new architecture is emerging; large-scale and stylistic forms of building; monumental-conceptual architecture — signature buildings, many of them gestural, on a vast architectural scale.
These architects deployed sensation through a play of surface and materials to sway the viewer. There is a personalized autobiographical dimension in the work of star architects, reinforced by the media. Ibelings even compares architects to rock stars: The personal status of these architects is now so great and the demand for their presence is so high — from students, the lecture circuit and competitions as well as the cities themselves.
Their work is strongly conceptual and cannot rely on any detailed study of fine grain or culture of the locality. Just like pop stars, these star architects have all developed a clear media strategy. They have become increasingly preoccupied with merchandising.
The competitive marketing of these buildings by cities has set up an upward demand spiral. Out of the work of the star architects, design types and styles emerge and become identified with successful cities, even before they are built.
As star architects are, by definition, limited in number, demand for symbolic and extraordinary buildings far outstrips the capacity of the star group to provide their own designs. The conceptual nature of these star products allows global commercial firms often, the executive architects for the star architects to clone the trademark design characteristics of the star product.
The reproduction of the spiral or twisted forms, globular glass, planar intersection and so on, is facilitated by the use of the same sophisticated computer graphics employed by the offices of the star architects to develop and present their concepts. This trickle-down effect and the high status of star architects within the architectural profession has influenced architecture more generally than the global origins of the star product. This autonomy is in many cases reinforced by the fact that the building has an inscrutable exterior that betrays nothing of what happens inside … In many instances these buildings look as if they might house just about anything: an office or a school, a bank or a research centre, a hotel or apartments, a shopping mall or an airport terminal.
Architecture and its rated star system have ascended, over the more traditional visual arts, as hallmarks of global capitalism. Architecture and design have attained a privileged status in contemporary culture. Supermodernism was, Ibelings insisted, expressionless and neutral, generally taking orthogonal form the Box , but quite possibly also resembling sculptural objects the Blob. The nature and organic design value is based on the idea that nature all sorts of living organisms, numerical laws, sacred geometry, etc can provide inspiration, functional clues and aesthetic forms that architects and industrial designers should use as a basis for designs.
It is the architectural equivalent to Genetic Modification. This building has restored the fabric of Bilbaos historic centre.
The high technological development in glass and steel and other material over the last ten years is an important factor for this surge of modern architecture. Integrating the latest construction technology in architecture has become an accepted trend, underlying a truly modernist belief in progress and reason.
These latest technological developments make it possible to design and build buildings which the modernists had envisioned and dreamed about in the early phase of modernism, but did not have the technology to actually build buildings which could be so sleek and almost translucent. Only at this point in history modernism in its pure form and dissolution of materiality can be fully realized.
In essence, the new abstraction is an expression of a fundamentally different attitude to architecture, which it sees less and less as significant and filled with symbolic meaning, and more and more as a neutral object. Apparently the more cultivated a person becomes, the more decoration disappears. Simple forms will free people from the everyday clutter, thus contributing to tranquillity and restfulness.
The banishing of unnecessary ornament was articulated as a sign of hope, freedom and authenticity. Local distinctiveness is often not a desirable characteristic.
The intention is that the building should be an iconic global product. Striving to create a connection between past and present forms. Experiential richness cannot be created by accident, or without a basic understanding of the sensibilities of those who will be using the space. This philosophy is closely linked to a number of artistic values found in movements like Expressionism and the Avant-garde art movement.
This design value is closely related to abstract forms and expression, personal creative liberty, elitism and being ahead of the rest of society. Every age has a certain spirit or set of shared attitudes that should be utilised when designing. The Spirit of the Times denotes the intellectual and cultural climate of a particular era, which can be linked to an experience of a certain worldview, sense of taste, collective consciousness and other-than-conscious greater awareness.
The 20th century has been marked by the re-emergence of environmental values within Western societies. Environmental problems and challenges found in the 19th and 20th centuries led to a development where environmental values became important in some sections of Western societies.
These values can also be found among individual architects and industrial designers. Environmental technology, along with new environmental values have affected development in cities across the world.
Many cities have started to formulate and introduce; eco-regulations concerning renewable resources, energy consumption, sick buildings, smart buildings, recycled materials, and sustainability. The future of architectural will be tested in this latest and most urgent global crisis; the survival of the ecology of the planet, such that it will continue to support our global civilisation. This is the supreme challenge for globalization: the cause, the effect and the resolution are and will be global and local.
It will affect all aspects of social, political and economic life and it will have a profound impact on architecture.
Böcker av Hans Ibelings
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