JACZYNOWSKA DZIEJE IMPERIUM ROMANUM PDF

Octavian Augustus , first emperor. On Creative Commons Attribution license - On these same conditions 3. The fate of the entire Roman state was in the hands of the adopted son Julius Caesar. The young leader did not intend to resign from the power that the army gave him to the republic. With enormous military strength under his sole command, he was the actual lord of the Roman empire, and it was up to his will what form he wanted to give to his governments.

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In the empire, only the triumvirates were distributing the main cards. However, as it turned out, three ambitious husbands could not manage one state organism together. Mark Lepidus was the first to lose his influence. Deprived of the army in 36 BC, the fight for the highest insignia no longer counted. There are only two left on the battlefield: Octawian August and Mark Antony. Another civil war, which actually broke out in 33 BC, was inevitable.

Looking for a rapid solution to the war on the Roman throne, Antonius and Octavian Augustus tried various solutions to the dispute. With time, the young general came up with the idea of attacking the naval base of Antonius and the Cleopatra located at Cape Action. Having a significant numerical advantage, he attacked the year 31 BC making it impossible for Antonius to flee to Egypt and forcing him to fight. Forces Seen from space Ambrakian Bay where the battle had place.

Octavian forces included nearly warships, 20, naval infantry and 40, heavy armed infantry. Fleet of Octavius were mostly lightweight units — liburnians — which were much less effective than the triangular and quadruple-rowed Antonius.

In addition, they were much easier to squeeze and squeeze between the mighty three and four-row Antonius. The forces of Antonius and Cleopatra are warships, including the fleet of 60 combat units of Cleopatra, 20, infantry, archers and 19 legions on land.

Theoretically, Mark Antony had a staggering , soldiers on land, but it is worth noting that they were located all over the east, from Greece to Egypt, so probably there were about 40, infantrymen ready for the Battle of Action. Realizing the advantage of Octavian on land, Antonius at the instigation of Cleopatra decided to bet on sea war, counting on the strength of his fleet.

His plan was quite simple, he wanted to use his strongest part of the fleet to hit the middle and break through the enemy line. Then, sailing to Egypt, he would gather his legions scattered all over the east and deliver a battle of war to Octavius on his territory. The soldier was supposed to address the commander with such words: Chief, why do you despise these wounds and this sword, and place your hopes in the unfortunate tree?

Let the Egyptians and the Phoenicians fight at sea, give us a change, on which we are accustomed to keep our place and die or conquer the enemy. The young general took command of the right wing, while the left wing surrendered to the excellent Admiral Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. In the center commanded Arantius. Behind the front line there was a fleet of 60 units of Cleopatra, on which all the wealth of the queen was located. Situational plan of the Battle of Action and its course. However, Octavians retreated and luring Celius into the open waters.

Soon all lines started the fight. Admiral Octavian gave his liburns the order to avoid close contact with the larger cruisers of Antonius. Instead, light units were to encircle two or three larger enemy units each. At the head of 60 Egyptian vessels it set off in this direction, breaking through to the open sea. Antonius also decided to escape.

He jumped from his cruiser to a smaller unit and following Cleopatra he set off to Egypt. Some of the other ships fiercely defended themselves, but finally she decided to surrender and vow obedience to Octavian. The naval battle ended at 4 pm. On land, commander the army of Antonius, Caninius Crassus, besieged by Octavian legions, commanded by Titus Titus Statilius Taurus, escaped under the cover of night. Legions of Antonius, without command, decided to join the army, which gave Octavian a total victory in the region.

Consequences The great victory of the young general was not only complemented by the capture of Cleopatra and Antonius, so he decided to go to Egypt as soon as possible and finally defeat his rival. His unexpected arrival at Alexandria in summer, led by a strong army, completely surprised Antonius.

Seeing no chance of victory with the legions of Octavius, the legionaries of Antonius deserted and turned to the side of the young leader.

Mark Antony, seeing no chance for victory, committed suicide, and later Cleopatra did the same. He himself was proclaimed princeps by the Senate, won the title of August and took control of Egypt and all its wealth.

For the gold of Egypt he could pay his soldiers the outstanding pay and grant a bonus, for which he gained great popularity. His long reign was supposed to bring Rome a time of calm and administrative reforms, which significantly improved the country.

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