|Published (Last):||10 May 2016|
|PDF File Size:||6.69 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.95 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Some of the early signs can include:  Delays in reaching, or failure to achieve milestones in motor skills development sitting, crawling, walking Slowness learning to talk, or continued difficulties with speech and language skills after starting to talk Difficulty with self-help and self-care skills e. People with mild ID are capable of learning reading and mathematics skills to approximately the level of a typical child aged nine to twelve.
They can learn self-care and practical skills, such as cooking or using the local mass transit system. As individuals with intellectual disability reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment.
Speech delays are particularly common signs of moderate ID. People with moderate intellectual disability need considerable supports in school, at home, and in the community in order to fully participate. While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities. As adults, they may live with their parents, in a supportive group home , or even semi-independently with significant supportive services to help them, for example, manage their finances.
As adults, they may work in a sheltered workshop. They may learn some ADLs, but an intellectual disability is considered severe or profound when individuals are unable to independently care for themselves without ongoing significant assistance from a caregiver throughout adulthood.
They may be able to learn to participate in some of these activities to limited degree. Those with ASD that hold symptoms of ID may be grouped into a co-diagnosis in which they are receiving treatment for a disorder they do not have. Likewise, those with ID that are mistaken to have ASD may be treated for symptoms of a disorder they do not have.
Differentiating between these two disorders will allow clinicians to deliver or prescribe the appropriate treatments. In addition to those three levels, ID has a fourth classification known as profound.
Defining differences In a study conducted in surveying cases, it was found that the top subsets that help differentiate between those with ID and ASD are, " In a study done in of individuals with varying levels of ID, it was found that those with ID display fewer instances of repetitive or ritualistic behaviors.
It also recognized that those with ASD, when compared to those with ID, were more likely to isolate themselves and make less eye contact. ID has a standardized assessment called the Supports Intensity Scale SIS , this measures severity on a system built around how much support an individual will need. While ASD also classifies severity by support needed there is no standard assessment, clinicians are free to diagnose severity at their own judgment.
Among children, the cause of intellectual disability is unknown for one-third to one-half of cases. Examples of such accidents are development of an extra chromosome 18 trisomy 18 and Down syndrome , which is the most common genetic cause.
The most common are: Genetic conditions. Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. The most prevalent genetic conditions include Down syndrome , Klinefelter syndrome , Fragile X syndrome common among boys , neurofibromatosis , congenital hypothyroidism , Williams syndrome , phenylketonuria PKU , and Prader—Willi syndrome.
Intellectual disability can result when the fetus does not develop properly. A pregnant woman who drinks alcohol see fetal alcohol spectrum disorder or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with intellectual disability.
Problems at birth. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen , he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage. Exposure to certain types of disease or toxins. Diseases like whooping cough , measles , or meningitis can cause intellectual disability if medical care is delayed or inadequate. Exposure to poisons like lead or mercury may also affect mental ability. Iodine deficiency also causes goiter , an enlargement of the thyroid gland.
More common than full-fledged cretinism , as intellectual disability caused by severe iodine deficiency is called, is mild impairment of intelligence. Residents of certain areas of the world, due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction, are severely affected by iodine deficiency.
Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have instituted widespread salt iodization programs. But, as of , Russia had not. In general, people with intellectual disability have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals who have a somewhat higher IQ but severe impairment in adaptive functioning.
Until the most recent revision of diagnostic standards, an IQ of 70 or below was a primary factor for intellectual disability diagnosis, and IQ scores were used to categorize degrees of intellectual disability. It encompasses intellectual scores, adaptive functioning scores from an adaptive behavior rating scale based on descriptions of known abilities provided by someone familiar with the person, and also the observations of the assessment examiner who is able to find out directly from the person what he or she can understand, communicate, and such like.
IQ assessment must be based on a current test. This enables diagnosis to avoid the pitfall of the Flynn effect , which is a consequence of changes in population IQ test performance changing IQ test norms over time. Distinction from other disabilities Clinically , intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities , which is a broader concept and includes intellectual deficits that are too mild to properly qualify as intellectual disability, or too specific as in specific learning disability , or acquired later in life through acquired brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like dementia.
Cognitive deficits may appear at any age. Developmental disability is any disability that is due to problems with growth and development. This term encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, although it, too, is sometimes used as a euphemism for intellectual disability.
To assess adaptive behavior, professionals compare the functional abilities of a child to those of other children of similar age. The results of a Swiss study suggest that the performance of adults with ID in recognizing different lifespan stages is related to specific cognitive abilities and to the type of material used to test this performance.
Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from mental illness , such as schizophrenia or depression. Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things. Causes, such as congenital hypothyroidism, if detected early may be treated to prevent development of an intellectual disability.
They include state-run, for-profit, and non-profit, privately run agencies. Within one agency there could be departments that include fully staffed residential homes, day rehabilitation programs that approximate schools, workshops wherein people with disabilities can obtain jobs, programs that assist people with developmental disabilities in obtaining jobs in the community, programs that provide support for people with developmental disabilities who have their own apartments, programs that assist them with raising their children, and many more.
There are also many agencies and programs for parents of children with developmental disabilities. Beyond that, there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. These "goals" may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence.
This may be anything from independence in tooth brushing to an independent residence. People with developmental disabilities learn throughout their lives and can obtain many new skills even late in life with the help of their families, caregivers, clinicians and the people who coordinate the efforts of all of these people.
There are four broad areas of intervention that allow for active participation from caregivers, community members, clinicians, and of course, the individual s with an intellectual disability. These include psychosocial treatments, behavioral treatments, cognitive-behavioral treatments, and family-oriented strategies. Results indicated that by age 2, the children provided the intervention had higher test scores than control group children, and they remained approximately 5 points higher 10 years after the end of the program.
By young adulthood, children from the intervention group had better educational attainment, employment opportunities, and fewer behavioral problems than their control-group counterparts. Typically, one-to-one training is offered in which a therapist uses a shaping procedure in combination with positive reinforcements to help the child pronounce syllables until words are completed.
Sometimes involving pictures and visual aids, therapists aim at improving speech capacity so that short sentences about important daily tasks e. The first goal of the training is to teach the child to be a strategical thinker through making cognitive connections and plans. Then, the therapist teaches the child to be metastrategical by teaching them to discriminate among different tasks and determine which plan or strategy suits each task. In general, this includes teaching assertiveness skills or behavior management techniques as well as how to ask for help from neighbors, extended family, or day-care staff.
Although there is no specific medication for intellectual disability, many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may be prescribed several medications. For example, autistic children with developmental delay may be prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers to help with their behavior. Use of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines in people with intellectual disability requires monitoring and vigilance as side effects occur commonly and are often misdiagnosed as behavioral and psychiatric problems.
About a quarter of cases are caused by a genetic disorder. Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disability were commonly viewed as burdens on their families.
Greek and Roman philosophers, who valued reasoning abilities, disparaged people with intellectual disability as barely human. Caliph Al-Walid r. In addition, Al-Walid assigned each intellectually disabled individual a caregiver. Negative stereotypes were prominent in social attitudes of the time.
In the 13th century, England declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of making decisions or managing their affairs. In the 17th century, Thomas Willis provided the first description of intellectual disability as a disease. According to Willis, the anatomical problems could be either an inborn condition or acquired later in life. In the 18th and 19th centuries, housing and care moved away from families and towards an asylum model.
People were placed by, or removed from, their families usually in infancy and housed in large professional institutions, many of which were self-sufficient through the labor of the residents.
Some of these institutions provided a very basic level of education such as differentiation between colors and basic word recognition and numeracy , but most continued to focus solely on the provision of basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter. Conditions in such institutions varied widely, but the support provided was generally non-individualized, with aberrant behavior and low levels of economic productivity regarded as a burden to society.
Individuals of higher wealth were often able to afford higher degrees of care such as home care or private asylums. Services were provided based on the relative ease to the provider, not based on the needs of the individual.
A survey taken in in Cape Town, South Africa shows the distribution between different facilities. Out of persons surveyed, 1, were in private dwellings, in jails, and in asylums, with men representing nearly two-thirds of the number surveyed. In situations of scarcity of accommodation, preference was given to white men and black men whose insanity threatened white society by disrupting employment relations and the tabooed sexual contact with white women.
This led to forced sterilization and prohibition of marriage in most of the developed world and was later used by Adolf Hitler as a rationale for the mass murder of people with intellectual disability during the holocaust.
Eugenics was later abandoned as an evil violation of human rights, and the practice of forced sterilization and prohibition from marriage was discontinued by most of the developed world by the midth century. In , Alfred Binet produced the first standardized test for measuring intelligence in children.
Their earliest efforts included workshops for special education teachers and daycamps for children with disabilities, all at a time when such training and programs were almost nonexistent. This book posited that society characterizes people with disabilities as deviant , sub-human and burdens of charity, resulting in the adoption of that "deviant" role. Wolfensberger argued that this dehumanization, and the segregated institutions that result from it, ignored the potential productive contributions that all people can make to society.
He pushed for a shift in policy and practice that recognized the human needs of those with intellectual disability and provided the same basic human rights as for the rest of the population. The publication of this book may be regarded as the first move towards the widespread adoption of the social model of disability in regard to these types of disabilities, and was the impetus for the development of government strategies for desegregation.
Successful lawsuits against governments and an increasing awareness of human rights and self-advocacy also contributed to this process, resulting in the passing in the U. From the s to the present, most states have moved towards the elimination of segregated institutions.
Normalization and deinstitutionalization are dominant.
Mental Retardasyon (Zihinsel Gerilik)
Zekâ Geriliği (Mental Retardasyon)